The history of the seventh wonder of the world - Lighthouse of Alexandria - linked with a base in 332 BC Alexandria, a city that was named in honor of the great Roman general of Alexander the Great. It should be noted that throughout his career conqueror founded about 17 cities with similar names, but only to the Egyptian project managed to survive until today.
Foundation of the glory of the great commander
Great place to take away the base of Alexandria of Egypt very carefully. He did not like the idea of the location in the Nile Delta, and so it was decided to split the first construction site 20 miles to the south, near the marshy lake Mareotis. Alexandria had to have two big harbor - one intended for commercial ships coming from the Mediterranean Sea, and the second - for ships traveling on the Nile.
After the death of Alexander the Great in 332 BC the city came under the rule of Ptolemy I Soter - the new ruler of Egypt. During this period, Alexandria became a prosperous trading port. In 290 BC Ptolemy ordered to build on the island of Pharos lighthouse huge that would light the way going in the harbor city of ships at night and in bad weather.
Construction of the lighthouse on the island of Pharos
Construction of the Lighthouse of Alexandria dates back to IV century BC, but the system of signal lights appeared only in the I century BC The creator of this masterpiece of engineering and architectural art is considered Sostratus, a resident of Knidos. Work lasted a little more than 20 years, and eventually the Lighthouse of Alexandria was the first in the world this type of structure and the tallest building in the ancient world, except, of course, gizeyskih pyramids.
The height of the Lighthouse of Alexandria was approximately 450-600 feet. When this building was absolutely not similar to any of the available while an architectural monument. The building is a three-tiered tower, whose walls were built of marble slabs, sealed lead solution. Lighthouse stood on the platform of huge stone blocks and consisted of three marble towers. First, the largest tower was rectangular - it has many rooms. Right here lived the soldiers and workers serving the lighthouse. The second tower was smaller in the form of an octagon, and serves as a transition to the uppermost tower in the shape of a cylinder, where the fire burned the lighthouse. The most complete description of the Lighthouse of Alexandria was Abu al-Andalussi - the famous Arab traveler - in 1166. He noted that the lighthouse in addition to purely practical functions served very visible dostoprimechatelnostyu.Svet Lighthouse of Alexandria was so powerful that it could be seen for 60 miles. To maintain the flame took a lot of firewood, which drives up on special carts ramp middle tower. The flame placed mirrors made of bronze, reflecting the light in the sea. An ancient legend says that the light from the lighthouse was able to burn enemy ships before approaching the shore.
The fate of the great Beacon
Pharos lighthouse lights the way the Mariners for over 1500 years. But strong tremors in the 365, 956 and 1303 years BC severely damaged the building, and a powerful earthquake in 1326-the year finally destroyed one of the greatest architectural structures in the world. In 1994, the remains of the Alexandria lighthouse were discovered by archaeologists, and subsequently the image of the structure was more or less successfully restored with the help of computer simulation. French archaeologists led by Jean-Yves Empere discovered the remains of the lighthouse at the end of 1994 at the bottom of the eastern harbor of Alexandria. Some of them have been raised to the surface, but still most of the water. This place is popular with divers who commit swim there. The lighthouse is still a symbol of the city of Alexandria. The stylized image of the Lighthouse can be found on the flag and seal of the city, as well as many state seals. institutions, including the University of Alexandria.